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Academic Skills Human Geography and Spatial Planning

Different source types

General structure:

Author, A.B., Author, C.D., & Author, E.F. (year). Title of the article. Title of the journal, volume(issue), pp-pp. DOI:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

 

State the DOI if you can find it.

Example:

Delanty, G. (1997). Models of citizenship: Defining European identity and citizenship. Citizenship Studies, 1(3), 285-303.

General structure

Author, G.H. (year). Title: Sub-title City: Publisher.

 

Example:
Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2011). Qualitative research methods. London: Sage.

Edited Book

Example:

Isin, E.F. & Turner, B.S. (Eds.) (2002). Handbook of citizenship studies. London: Sage.

Later edition

Example:

Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (third edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in a book
General structure

Author, I.J. & Author, K.L.M. (year). Title of the chapter: Sub-title of the chapter. In: N. Editor & O. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book or collection](pp-pp). City: Publisher.

 

Example

Laïdi, Z. (1988). Introduction: What use is the Soviet Union? In Z. Laïdi (ed.), The Third World and the Soviet Union (pp. 1-23). London: Zed Books.

General structure:
Author (year). Title of the report: Sub-title of the report (number, if available). City: Publisher.

 

If the author/authors are known
Example

Cloin, M. (2011). Nederland in een dag: tijdsbesteding in Nederland vergeleken met die in vijftien andere Europese landen. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.

If no authors are known
Example

Netherlands Institute for Social Research (2007). Het bereik van het verleden. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.

For both of these versions you can include the URL as the place where you found the citation or information.

Example

Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment/Housing, Communities and Integration (VROM/WWI) (2009). Leefbaarheid door de tijd (VROM report 9036). Retrieved from the government website: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/rapporten/2009/10/25/leefbaarheid-door-de-tijd.html

If the author is known, you list the newspaper article in accordance with the guidelines for a journal article. As extra information you should also include the day of publication and, if known, the supplement in which the article appeared. Note: in the text you only state the year; in the bibliography you also state the day and month of publication.

 Example
Bloemberg, H. (2012, 25 May). Als burgers bepalen we de toekomst van Europa. Trouw, p. 23.

 

If no author is known, the title comes where the author’s name normally would. You use the first word to alphabetise. If you have used the online version of a newspaper as a source, you should state the URL of the newspaper.

Example

Noord-Europa kaatst de bal terug naar Italië (2013, 9 October) Retrieved from www.nrc.nl/handelsblad

General structure

Author, R.S. (year). Title and sub-title (type of publication and name of the university/university of applied sciences). City: Publisher.

 

In principle you reference a dissertation as you would a book, but then you also need to mention that it is a dissertation.

Examples

Gorp, B. van (2003). Bezienswaardig? Historisch-geografisch erfgoed in toeristische beeldvorming (Dissertation, Utrecht University). Delft: Eburon.

Wijnen, M.P.G. (2013). Bedrijventerreinen beter bereikbaar (Master’s Thesis, Utrecht University). Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/275077

General structure

Author, T. (year, day, month). Title of report/article [description of the type of report/article]. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.zzz Al3xxei (2007, 2 April 2007).

 

Example

An introduction to Human Geography (final revision) [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Ce4P05TrNQ

 

For the date of publication, you state the date on which the report/article was posted online. If you cannot find a date, you state (n.d.). You should then at least state the date on which you consulted the source.